Post Workshop

Thanks to all for participating and discussing with us!


Below please find some (random and subjective) notes that we took during the workshop!

Please feel free to add, comment, or question!! (If you would like to contribute a picture as well, please email it to me for putting it online:

Brainstorming Session: working-definition

  • learning use of tech to achieve something –> contributing to …. preexisting goal
  • Equipment driven technology: making equipment fit into everyday practice –> transforming mundane practice via. Equipment –> sustainable & meaningful to self
  • Fitting – to context of use –> learning discovering, new way of doing something
  • usage that goes beyond designers intent
  • configuring use (& technology) – both ways
  • role of intention?
  • Tension between „half mine“ / „half yours“ –> highly depends on the context of use
  • Testing the limits of an objects (intentional part of learning)
  • Personal and group
  • Transformation of goal or intention
  • Sometimes without goals
  • Intentional articulation work
  • Many goals – uncertain priorities
  • How does appropriation relate to design in use? –> feedback into design?
  • Aspect of time –> maybe we are giving a time-span to technology?
  • Design as fixed or dynamic/unfolding
  • Inside and outside of technology –> what do we observe?
  • Coupling: design for?
  • How to study goals – of individuals or groups?
  • Whose goals?
  • Lack of shared meaning?
  • We have goals on different levels? We may know about them? You may not be interested ofthem?
  • Why are we actually appropriating technology? What are the drivers of appropriation?
  • How much flexibility to design into technology –> Situated and reflected appropriation (on an organizational level: (1) reflection in terms of making technology as open as possible to allow for appropriation; (2) reflection in terms of making technology not allowing for appropriationàrestricting)
  • Appropriation in the moment (intended & prevented)
  • 2 Papers: Do have artefacts politics? Deliberate politics of artifacts? Discerning bias in design –> scope might include designers intentions
  • Design culture –> users awareness of those culture

Drivers of appropriation:

  • Drivers of appropriation –> what are triggering instances?
  • We started with 4 ideas: further ideas areo Unanticipated…
    * Users (and their experiences)
    * Usage
    * Circumstances
    * Design
    * Incentives
    * Borrow resources (from users and from usage)
    * …
  • Appropriation for me for us?
  • pre-existing goals: maybe technology is really appropriated if the goal alters

Break out Session:

Group 1:

  • Idea of adaptation is against the goal of the designer (making it mine as a starting definition)
  • Different tensions:
    * Does appropriation occur in different situations at hand?
    * What amount of constraints is put into the design by designers?
    * E.g., social software
    * Study: existing appropriation – when you trigger change?
  • Definition: process of making one’s mundane practices and tools fit together to produce sustainable and meaningful courses of action
    * Definition is related to equipment
    * How to solve breakdows that occur with tools?
    * We can’t do interpretations of ourselves for the users? o skillful coping, may lead to transferable skills
    * you know how to deal with breakdowns with this tool
  • Design for appropriation was not discussed –> totally different topic?
  • Knowing that something is appropriate is not necessarily something good
  • {Observe, inquire}, intervene
    * Can’t do interpretation unless you can ask people
    * Did you think about it (apply a strategy)? Do you just do it
  • Question: How to design for appropriation
  • Knowing that something is appropriated may not be useful. What would be?
    * User experience –> market impact
    * Manager’s goals of efficiency and satisfaction
    * Manager’s goals of creating meaning and collaboration via technology

Group 2:

  • Is appropriation something that is necessarily something good/bad
    – Good or bad: creative, self-serving, dangerous, empowering (for whom?)
  • Lifespan of technology – how aware are users that some appropriation has taken place?
  • Time and space as important influencing factors
  • Limitations in the thinking of designers à not considered so formally
  • Claiming for diversity seems to be something different than claiming for unanticipativeness
  • Maybe diversity seems to be something different than unanticipation
  • What is unanticipated (in unanticipated use, users, circumstances, design)?
  • How much can we anticipate and put into a design? Can it be too much?

Plenum Session:

  • How can observe appropriations?
    * do we need the perspective of the users ? how to ask users?
    * do we need the perspective of the designers? do we need to ask designers? o can we infer designers’ goals?
    * Context of use
    * Participatory design
    * interpretation needs to come from the person that has appropriated it
  • Theories:
    * TAM as theory
    * adaption vs. breakdowns – having this continuum?
    * that people can sufficiently work with what they have at hand
    * coping
    * ready-to-hand
    * Installation theory (arenas where interactions occur, focus on how meanings of arenas evolve over time, how groups make meaning)
    * Designers’ control of users’ work practices vs. nudging? * Manipulation achieved via designing for appropriation?
  • Is it a good idea to design for appropriation?
    * depending on the intention of the designers: controll vs. freedom
    * designer control the users work practices/ inform
    * Is design-for-appropriation dependent on the unanticipated aspects?
    * Is it good idea to design for appropriation? –> depending: it can either be for control or it can be for manipulation (this can both be good/bad)
    * Intended timespan of use
    * A defense against obsolescence
    * Do you know how users and usage would grow over time?
  • Methodological:
    * Context matters –> group and collective experiences
    * There is no baseline of measurements you do?
    * More points of measurements?
    * How do we study appropriation as it happens? –> does it depend on luck?
    * Agile development
    * Participatory design
  • What is worst for appropriation?
    * Acceptance testing
    * Showing that something is usable <–> does not mean that they’ve appropriated it
    * In-situ vs. lab studies
    * How could we make a mistake? What are the failure cases?
    * Show events make people use the technology?
  • good/bad to design for appropriation:
    * Uanticipated circumstances –> one of the risks?
    * To what of circumstances are you contributing?
    * Disruptive and incremental discussions –> mundane practices
    * Design strategy –> temporal dimension –> for lifetime or not
    * Evolvement over time of design —> thinking of design as a period of time and how users in the same time evolve –> this is interesting o What are times when
  • • What methods do exist what designers need to do/inform designers?
    * Intention and believe structures –> what to see in the artifact?
    * Unsustainable to assessing populations at the end
  • Harvest Technologies and IP:
    * Competitive designers and competitive appropriations –> this could be competing o It depends where patents are actual deployed
    * From the users perspective: if they have to appropriate technology?
    * Even if people/designers have anticipated the design it can be appropriations?

Here are pics of the poster presentations…

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… and here some more from the breakout sessions and discussion!

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